Carbon cycle as reflected in atmospheric CO2 in the western US
The carbon isotope ratios of atmospheric CO2 reflect a balance between source (respiration, anthropogenic activities, fires) and sink (photosynthesis) processes. As turbulence dominates the mixing of CO2 in the atmosphere, the distribution of [CO2] values within and above the convective boundary have been used for scaling carbon cycle activities. Here stable isotopes play a role constraining interpretations on the role of fluxes at large scales. Typically, Keeling-plots are used to characterize terrestrial fluxes. The utility of carbon isotopes in CO2 is to constrain interpretations of what is driving changes in biosphere-atmosphere CO2 estimates (net ecosystem exchange, NEE). Increasingly, atmospheric models (e.g., WRFF, STILT) can be combined with concentrations and carbon isotopes in CO2 to make predictions of fluxes and to dissect out the sources contributing to these fluxes.
The project will support a postdoc to compile and synthesize the data from published Keeling plot studies and local to global-scale monitoring networks to elaborate the role of isotopic data in describing CO2 flux attribution and ecosystem-level gas exchange over multiple spatial scales. Data anlaysis will involve significant quantitative work with a number of ecosystem, atmospheric, and chemical transport models.
Several initial projects are anticipated:
- First, what are the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis to gross primary productivity in grasslands, forests, and other dominant ecosystems across North America?
- Second, what is the role of the anthropogenic signal in modifying atmospheric concentrations and carbon isotopes in CO2?
- Third, how can concentrations and carbon isotopes in CO2 be used to study urban metabolism in cities across North America?
- Fourth, what are the relative roles and variation of different human and non-human emissions sources on the CO2 emission budgets for urban ecosystems?
Bowling, Ehleringer, Gurney, Pataki, Randerson, Wofsy
Image courtesy of the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, and NOAA Global Monitoring Division
2018 course application window is now closed - admission decisions by end February
New Publication – SPATIAL and IsoCamp alum Cat Jarman develops ITCE research-in-residence project and reports paleogenomic analysis of skeletal samples in determining the origins of inhabitants of Rapa Nui. Read the paper published in Current Biology (here)
Open PhD position - The research group of Prof. Kahmen at the University of Basel just published an open ERC-funded PhD position in stable isotope physiology. Read it (here).
New Publication - Marine isoscape paper from ITCE research-in-residence team including SPATIAL alum Sarah Magozzi, SPATIAL instructors Clive Trueman and Michael Wunder, and former ITCE post-doc Hannah Vander Zanden! Read it (here)!
New Publication - Marine Biology paper by SPATIAL alum Julia Adams (2015). Link to full-text article (here)!
New Publications - Two new papers by SPATIAL alum Sean Brennan involving salmon migration (here) and using dendritic network models to improve Strontium isoscapes (here)!
New Blog Post - Former SPATIAL student Katie Wedemeyer-Strombel discusses her experience as a SPATIAL student last summer! (Check it out here!)
IsoMAP is a dynamic, online workspace for spatial analysis, modeling and prediction of stable isotope ratio variation in the natural environment. The initial realease of the IsoMAP gateway is now live and supports precipitation isotope ratio modeling. Visit IsoMAP to learn more or to start making isoscapes today!